Meanderings In


 A Work-In-Process by Kenneth Moore

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The word "Jazz" was coined in the late 1800's or early 1900's to describe a genre of modern American music born in the "Black" experience. Many people love this music and proclaim it to be America’s most significant contribution to art and it is.


And it is even more. For some people Jazz is the process of cultivating creative energy to raise rhythmic and spiritual consciousness. It's a way of doing things; an approach to life. Nina Simone declared: "It’s a way of being; a way of thinking," Jazz is a stste of mind.


Some people wonder how something so open and all-encompassing could have been born of something so inexplicably confining as slavery. How did it survive?  


In a piece written several decades ago titled, Black Art, Black Magic, Ron Milner offered an answer. He explained that music is the least concrete of the arts. He suggested that the inherent flexibility of music might have been the thing that freed "Black" musicians to express themselves beyond the constraints of their circumstances.


Léopold Sédar Senghor said: "Music and rhythm find their way to the secret places of the soul...Music creates order out of chaos; for rhythm imposes unanimity upon the divergent, melody imposes continuity upon the disjointed, and harmony imposes compatibility upon the incongruous." Senghor observated  that art is animated by invisible forces in the universe.


In his book, The African Origin of Biological Psychiatry, Dr. Richard King referred to “the hidden doorway to the collective unconscious...darkness, the shadow, the primeval ocean…the accumulated experience and wisdom of the ancestors." Mysterious? Yes. 


There is no question that creative energy can move the individual mind from one state to another. And so moved, the individual may engage in a dance with spirit. This dance engenders a common ground where like-minded individuals embrace a sense of their similar feelings about consequential matters of life; of body and soul. 


Most of the men, women and children interned in the peculiar institution of slavery in the "New World" were uprooted from the vast region of West and Central West Africa. Vast as it was, the people were connected to one another by a thread of common spiritual consciousness that originated in ancient Africa where adepts in believed the Spirit enters the individual mind by way of the ear.



This spiritual thread was reinforced by African storytelling traditions in ancient African societies including those of Ghana, Melle (Mali), Songhay, Timbuktu and others. Dogon people believed the drum was the ear of God and that through the drum men could speak to God on behalf of mankind.


In The Healing Drum, authors, Yaya Diallo and Mitchell Hall, conceded that it is indeed a mystery that music can facilitate psychological therapy. They said: "Since psychologically disturbed individuals are rhythmically disturbed as well, the use of the healing drum for sustained periods of time at a steady rhythm that suits the patient is a potent remedy for body-mind healing. Through the ears, the entire nervous system is affected. Sound energy is transformed into bioelectric energy. As the brain waves and rhythms of internal organs are stabalized, the person functions as a more synchronous whole." 


The ancient Ewe people understood the philosophy of transforming sound into bioelectric energy and used it in their efforts to fulfill the self. They knew that a goal so vital could not be accomplished with a feeble effort.  



In his book, To Be Or Not To Bop, Dizzy Gillespie observed that "during slavery the masters didn't want any two people on the plantation speaking the same African language. If they found out two people were from the same tribe, they'd sell off one because they wanted them to speak English so the slavemasters would know what they were talking about all the time. They couldn't have any secrets and they didn't want Africans to practice their own religions."

Gillespie continued: “The slave masters took away the blacks’ prime means of expression (the drum) and wouldn’t let them play it, which was very smart of the slave masters because you could talk with the drums and foment revolution and uprisings. Everybody would know what was happening, so they (the slave masters) wouldn't let them play the drums."


Of all taboos, few were more vigorously enforced than the taboo concerned the drum. 


In his book, The Healing Wisdom of Africa, Malidoma Some’ said, “Indigenous people know that there is collective memory and there is individual memory. Collective memory is not a vast well that exists separate from individual people. It is the sum total of the personal memories of each person. In other words, for a village, a tribe, and a culture to remember, each individual must master the ability to remember the knowledge that lives in his or her bones.”


The universe does indeed have a collective memory and like a great library, it has been expanding since the beginning of time. It contains all of the wisdom of things concerning body and soul and, as the minds of individuals move toward it, wisdom moves toward them. The journey connecting the individual to this wisdom is highly spiritual. Duke Ellington observed, "Music is everything. Nature is music…cicadas in the tropical night...the sea is music...the wind is music...the rain drumming on the roof and the storm raging in the sky are music. Music is the oldest entity. The scope of music is immense and infinite.”


Malidoma explained that when the individual no longer remembers, the community no longer remembers. At that point, the collective memory of the community is endangered and the endangered individuals begin to look outside of themselves for their purpose. 


"Music gives a soul to the universe, wings to the mind, flight to the imagination, and life to everything," Plato said.


Vital essences of ideas such as those expressed by Milner, Senghor, King, Plato and others arrived in the "land of the free" in the mind's of the Africans to be enslaved. In America and elsewhere, their rhythmic and spiritual consciousness met the horrible reality of their enslavement - the root of the "black" experience - thus, the Jazz state of mind was born. 




 Advanced Jazz Anatomy




Not long ago, some people convinced themselves that they were, in every way, superior to others. They went so far as believe that God had made them masters of everything in life. They saw God in their own image and none other. In their minds, God was servant to their desires and their greatest desire was to enslave others. They believed they had the power, not only to enslave the bodies of other people, but also the power to enslave their minds and, in so doing, destroy their memories as well. 


Nothing, however, in human concoction can totally enslave the mind because the mind is connected to a collective memory that revives it. 


In his book, Black Labor, White Wealth, Dr Claud Anderson called the enslavement of “Black” people the peculiar institution because the practice was unusual in every sense.


Anderson explained that the peculiar institution was an economic practice aimed exclusively at “Black” people. He noted that “20 to 35 million ‘Blacks" were killed outright and another 15 million were physically enslaved, psychologically abused, academically impaired, and economically impoverished for 400 years. "The moral questions of slavery and race were either ignored or justified by the use of Biblical references that were included in the King James version of the Bible that was written after England officially approved “Black” slave trading in 1618.”


In his book, To Be or Not To Bop, Dizzy Gillespie observed that the so-called slave masters "wanted the Africans to accept Jesus Christ as the Son of God. Accept that, but don't practice it with the slavemasters; because by the whole system of communications which the Europeans set up, the Africans were lesser, and how could you talk about brotherhood of man and hold these people in that condition of slavery?"



No degree of human rationalization can justify slavery. Nor can it break a thread that connects the individual mind to a collective memory that revives and naturally re-orients the individual.  



Most of the men, women and children interned in the peculiar institution were uprooted from the vast region of West and Central West Africa. Vast as it was, it was connected by an ancient yet resilient spiritual thread of rhythmic, spiritual, and creative traditions.


It began in ancient Africa where adepts in believed the Spirit enters the individual mind by way of the eye and the ear and the other sensory receptors.


Similar beliefs were at the heart of the African storytelling traditions that helped make the ancient African societies such as Ghana, Melle (Mali), Songhay, Timbuktu and others strong. Similar beliefs were held in Dogon society where the people believed the drum was the ear of God. Indeed, the Dogon believed that men could speak to God on behalf of mankind through the drum.


The ancient thread; the source of many African beliefs survived because it was infused and re-infused over and over again with a creative energy that was not allowed to die. This powerful force could be quiet and mellow or it could loud and intense as it was among the Ewe people. They believed a feeble effort could not fulfill the self. 


The old folks say: "Know yourself."


In his book, The Healing Wisdom of Africa, Malidoma Some’ said, “Indigenous people know that there is collective memory and there is individual memory. Collective memory is not a vast well that exists separate from individual people. It is the sum total of the personal memories of each person. In other words, for a village, a tribe, and a culture to remember, each individual must master the ability to remember the knowledge that lives in his or her bones.”

Malidoma explained that when the individual no longer remembers, the community no longer remembers. At that point, the collective memory of the community is endangered and the endangered individuals begin to look outside of themselves for their purpose. 


In the aftermath of life as a slave, an old "Black" woman turned and took a sad look back:


“Lawd have mercy...Lawd, Lawd, dat sho bad times. Black folks jes’ raise up like cattle in de stable…Don’t know nothin’ ‘bout myself. He (the man who held her captive) says I’s a South Carolina n----r what he bought back der and brung to Texas when I jes’ a baby. I reckon it de truth ‘cause I ain’t never knowed no mama or papa, neither one.”


To look outside of one's self for one's purpose in life makes one vulnerable to the purposes of others. Many of the people captured in Africa for enslavement in the West were brutally detached from their ancestry. Their sense of self was attacked continuously and all but destroyed. In time, many captives lost their sense of self and became so emotionally disturbed that they nearly lost their minds. 

The once-enslaved, Frederick Douglass said: “I have no accurate knowledge of my age, never having seen any authentic record containing it. By far the larger part of the slaves know as little of their ages as horses know of theirs, and it is the wish of most masters within my knowledge to keep their slaves thus ignorant. I do not remember to have ever met a slave who could tell of his or her birthday. A want of information concerning my own was a source of unhappiness to me even during childhood...I was not allowed to make any inquiries of my master concerning it. He deemed all such inquiries on the part of a slave as improper and impertinent, and evidence of a restless spirit." 


The restless slave was given a daily choice: either endure severe punishment, be killed on the spot, or submit to the slave life.

Those who submitted to slave life, lived life in a world where everything African was denigrated and colored so dark and made so deeply mysterious that any rising up in their consciousness of anything charged with African spirit, further disturbed the slave and perpetuated slavery.

The old folks say: "Be true to yourself."

Gillespie also explained why the drum taboo could not work.

“Mama Rhythm is Africa,” he declared. “So the blacks devised new means of beating on tin pans and singing in the fields and at night, they’d go way back in the woods and hold secret religious meetings by firelight and clap and stomp…”

What lives in the bones can be stirred and re-awakened because what lives is not dead. What lives can be moved. Rhythm is a catalyst to the stirring that re-awakens the mind and causes it to move.  


Yes. Though muffled to avoid detection, it was the sound of thousands of feet pounding the earth at the abyss of the institution of slavery over the course of many generations, that produced the rhythm that energized the movement of many minds from a state of captivity to one of freedom.

"We tricked them, we tricked the white people," Gillespie said.


“Black People” pulled together the threads of their ancient spiritual traditions in secret.

A former slave recalled:

“When de n---ers go round singin’ ‘Steal Away to Jesus,’ dat mean dere gwine be a ’ligious meetin’ dat night. De masters … didn’t like dem ’ligious meetin’s so us natcherly slips off at night, down in de bottoms or somewhere. Sometimes us sing and pray all night.”


These secret late night meetings are the foundation of “the invisible institution” and were something other than ordinary religious ceremony.


They were the continuance of the dances with spirit that began in the earliest moments of the attempted enslavement of African people.

Once the institution of slavery was established in America, “Black People” continued conducting the secret ritual and cultivated it over many generations.

In the somber wake of the Charleston Nine who were murdered during a Wednesday night prayer meeting at Mother Emanuel A.M.E. Church, President Obama reminded mourners and the nation of the significance of “hush harbors;” the secret meeting places cultivated in Black secret society by “Black People” in resistance to the attempt to enslave them centuries before the “Black Church” was established in American society-at-large.


Before leading mourners and the nation in rendition of the hymn, “Amazing Grace,” the president reminded mourners and the nation that the so-called “Black Church” and its predecessors have long been the “center of African-American life: a place to call our own in a too often hostile world, a sanctuary from so many hardships…where slaves could worship in safety…our beating heart…the place where our dignity as a people is inviolate…”



“Lawd have mercy...Lawd, Lawd, 

Yes. Not too long ago, some people did believe they were superior to others and holding this belief deep in their minds, they concocted the idea that God supported their desire to enslave others. The so-called superiors took the liberty of attaching taboo to their concoction. They warned that none other that God forbade their captives from attempting to undermine their captivity. They said slavery was ordained by God. However, among the African people enslaved in America, there were always some who realized that their enslavement was a man-made concoction. 


No. Mama Rhythm could not be disconnected from her captive children.


Mama Africa's children knew that freedom lived in a domain of their father: an all-encompassing state of mind

They used the mind's eye to see through the darkness of their captivity. They saw, as their ancestors had, that the mind of the individual is connected to a great collective memory; a greater state of mind where freedom is natural. 

Over the course of many generations, the knowledge that was and is alive in the bones was realized. The minds of the so-called slaves were energized by the revolutionary idea that their origin and destination are one, ideas such as those articulated generations later by many including those expressed by musicologist, Francis Bebey concerning the transience of life and how the idea of human destiny can be challenged; the ideas that caused the mind to move and be free.

For some, death's finality was understood to be but a necessary step in being transformed into another kind of living. For them there was no taboo because there was no fear of death. 







 There are many states of mind.



The physical body is a perishable container. It can be controlled and even enslaved by outside forces. Spirit, however, is an invisible, uncontainable entity that resides in the individual state of mind. One's mind, encompassed by the inherent power of spirit, is creative and able to move, and one may thereby transcend present states of being.

At times, one’s spirit may seem to reflect and react only to the physical manifestations of one's existence. But one's spirit naturally aspires to reflect and react to one's true self or soul. One's spirit is a property of the mind and both are universal in nature.

And so, expression passing through this mysterious realm often rejuvenates, re-creates, regenerates - rebirthing the self. 





Jazz came, not out of a musical tradition, but rather "out of a communal experience” as Max Roach said. And that communal experience was never and is not now necessarily musical. Albert Murray called Jazz “the ancestral down-home voice at its highest level of refinement” and that voice is not unlike the experience. Together, they are the root of an ever-encompassing and long-lasting echo of "Black" reactions: a look, a glance, a gesture, a stance, a silence, a scream, and more; all reactions to a unique American experience.

True. Jazz music can be, and often is, the catalyst into the Jazz state of mind, but once there, the music often fades and deeper, more significant things take shape: emotions forming a surreality; an invisible collective mentality that necessarily fulfills the individual expression it inspires. Yes. Jazz is more than music.



Black Surreality 



Jazz, as an approach to creative expression, provides the artist with unlimited points of departure. The artist is free explore the invisible mind where a certain surreality may be found. Artists often express revolutionary ideas that may, at times, so stir the higher spiritual self that those who experience their work are also awakened or re-awakened, as the case may be. 


The Mind


An article written on the subject of the mind says: “A lengthy tradition of inquiries in philosophy, religion, psychology and cognitive science has sought to develop an understanding of what a mind is and what its distinguishing properties are.” Those inquiries are ongoing. However, in the book, T’ai Chi Classics, Waysun Liao offers a conclusion that the mind is the only part of the human being that does not belong totally to the earth. The working Jazz state of mind is a mental activity that enables those who can perceive its existence to gain consciousness of the earthly experience in a spiritual sense. 





Ludwig van Coltrane



"All classes of people under social pressure are permeated with a common experience; they are emotionally welded as others cannot be. With them, even ordinary living has epic depth and lyric intensity, and this, their material handicap, is their spiritual advantage." ( Alain Locke, Dean of the Harlem Renaissance)


Social pressures develop at different times and in different places from very different circumstances and although the length, depth, and intensity, etc. may differ, there is the possibility that some things, when contemplated in their larger more universal contexts, may be perceived in much the same manner by people under similar pressures.

Indeed, German composer and pianist, Ludwig van Beethoven and African American composer and saxophonist, John Coltrane, lived at different times and under different degrees of social pressure, but their music, when contemplated its larger more universal context, expresses something of a common state of mind.

Of Beethoven’s experience, one writer says:

Beethoven was from a poverty-stricken family, son of an alcoholic, and resented the social strata which excluded him. As his talents and heroic determination helped him rise in the social world, he was attracted to the idea that all men were equal, and that freedom was the most precious social condition…Beethoven was considered a radical, an eccentric, and emotionally unstable…”

One critic’s assessment of Coltrane’s 1965 masterpiece, ASCENSION as “alien to the American spirit” implied that the circumstances of the social pressure Coltrane worked under caused him to be as radical, eccentric and emotionally unstable as his fellow genius, Beethoven.

Nevertheless, in listening to their music, it is possible to consider that they, more often than not, reached a common spiritual plateau because beyond their often-mesmerizing music, they expressed something of truth, something that connects them to one another and them to us.


Ludwig van Beethoven observed:

"Music is a higher revelation than all wisdom and philosophy. Music is the electrical soil in which the spirit lives, thinks and invents."


John Coltrane observed:

My music is the spiritual expression of what I am — my faith, my knowledge, my being...When you begin to see the possibilities of music, you desire to do something really good for people, to help humanity free itself from its hangups...I want to speak to their souls.”



Like Souls




In 1903, W.E.B. DuBois explained in The Souls of Black Folk that American Negro history is one of strife and one of “longing to attain self-conscious manhood, to merge his double self into a better and truer self…to make it possible for a man to be both a Negro and an American, without being cursed and spit upon by his fellows.” The end of this striving he said is “to be a co-worker in the kingdom of culture, to escape both death and isolation, to husband and use his best powers and his latent genius.”

These words coming from 1903 in the wake of the collapse of the institution of slavery and the initiation of Jim Crow, expressed something of the multi-self “Black Person” all “Black People” had been forced to accommodate and, hopefully merge into one person – an awesome and unspeakable task for a mass of people suppressed for many generations.

It was a problem many “Black People” didn’t realize they had and the few who did couldn’t solve it without help from like souls: Those who might forgive, but would never forget their common history and the need to cultivate the souls of "Black Folk" forever.



The Sprit Moves


“Slavery is gone, but the spirit of it still remains.”

(Francis Grimke, 1850-1937)



And So Do We





The Jazz state of mind proceeds from a sense of reality consciousness into another sense that resides in sub-consciousness: a change of mind brought about by a movement of the spirit.


Any music, not just Jazz music or, for that matter, any other thing of a certain quality can move the spirit and cause one’s way of seeing, hearing and feeling about things, etc. to change, temporarily, if not permanently.

In this transitory state, individual reality is overwhelmed by individual imagination and although no one necessarily sees, hears or feels the same way about anything, everyone having been moved by spiritual elements experiences something of a common state of mind.




A Story Untold



James Baldwin said, “It is only in his music, which Americans are able to admire because protective sentimentality limits their understanding of it, that the Negro in America has been able to tell his story.  It is a story which otherwise has yet to be told and which no American is prepared to hear.”



This story-telling music employs a mysteriously delicate voice, what Albert Murray called “the ancestral down-home voice at its highest level of refinement” and it is, therefore more ritual in nature than it is musical. The ancestral down-home voice is a language made not notes or words, but rather of the threads of ancient signs and symbols and hieroglyphics pulled together over many generations by “Black People” as “the gates of chaos” slammed shut around them.

Baldwin referred to “the gates of chaos” in explaining how the American experience of “Black People” affects American psychology and how that experience is betrayed in its popular culture and morality and how that estranges Black People from themselves and America from herself as well.  The story is difficult to understand because its more pertinent points are outside the realm of music and the voice attempting to give them meaning sounds mostly foreign and so the story may be interesting, but is mostly incomprehensible. “We cannot ask: what do we really feel about him (Black People)–such a question merely opens the gates on chaos. What we really feel about him is involved with all that we feel about everything, about everyone, about ourselves.”


The Gates of Chaos 


Archie Shepp warned the uninitiated:

"You can't just come on in the middle of Coltrane playing IMPRESSIONS or TRANSITION and expect you're going to pat your feet.”


The music subsides suddenly and there is confusion that leads to disorientation; to a place in the mind where the uninitiated may come face to face themselves and something else; with what one writer called “the comfortably benign, self-righteous, innocent side of ourselves” and another writer called “all the hateful powers of the Underworld” and the uninitiated sees for the first time, perhaps, “the dark triumph of Evil” over good. And there is a scream, then silence.

A door opens and what Dr. Richard King called “the hidden doorway to the collective unconscious” in THE AFRICAN ORIGIN OF BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY and the realm beyond: a "darkness, the shadow, the primeval ocean…the accumulated experience and wisdom of the ancestors" enters the conscious mind.” In that silence, the mind sees through the darkness and "challenge to human destiny” is clarified as the refusal “to accept the transience of this life,” an “attempt to transform the finality of death into another kind of living" just as musicologist Francis Bebey said.

The words of the critic who described Coltrane’s 1965 masterpiece, ASCENSION, as “alien to the American spirit” seems shallow as the head nods and the now-initiated foot pats anew.

 Dancing with Spirit




Listening to Jazz music has the power to lift the gates of chaos, but a mindset of orderly disorder is needed to understand the story; a ritual, what Malidoma Patrice Some further defines in his book, The Healing Wisdom of Africa, as the spontaneous feelings and trust placed in certain outcomes; a surrender that gives the human spirit, indeed the soul, permission to express itself.

“When most Westerners think of ritual,” Malidoma explains, “they are more likely to connect it with words such as empty, old-fashioned, irrelevant, and boring than with words such as transforming, essential, challenging, or healing.” When the gates of chaos rise and the ritual begins it is possible to understand.

Malidoma tells us that ritual engages passion and stimulates creativity and emotion and, in the end, those who enjoin the ritual feel changed. “Doing ritual heals people, reconnecting them to the ancestors and to their own deepest purpose. Because ritual is so deeply connected to our human nature, anytime it is missing there will be a lack of transformation and healing.” Ritual is a dance with spirit, the soul’s way of interacting with the Other World, the human psyche’s opportunity to develop relationship with the symbols of this world and the spirits of the other.”

There are two poles between life: birth and death, and although we experience the birth and death of others, we can’t recall our own beginning to the living nor can express our own end to the living even though both are of ultimate significance. To recall or express anything beyond the pole of birth and the pole of death requires, what Malidoma calls ritual and describes as “a dance with spirit, the soul’s way of interacting with the Other World, the human psyche’s opportunity to develop relationship with the symbols of this world and the spirits of the other.”


’ligious meetin’ 




“A sacred place, this church,” the president said. “Not just for Blacks, not just for Christians, but for every American who cares about the steady expansion of human rights and human dignity in this country; a foundation stone for liberty and justice for all.”  

Who can say how much President Obama knows about the ritual, if anything, but as he sang and spoke the mysteriously delicate voice of “the ancestral down-home voice” came through loud and clear. The spontaneous release of emotion was present. No attempt was made to contain and control emotion through the use of familiar words and for the first time in American history, a president joined in the dance with spirit.


Nine "Black People" lost their lives in another episode of the American nightmare that is rooted in America's original sin: the institution of slavery in the "land of the free." Members of their families of the Charleston Nine, faced the muderer. and forgave him and broke through a layer of "protective sentimentality" moving some to a better understanding.



Black Magic, Black Art 




Milner explained that even before the word "Jazz" was invented, Black musicians realized that they were free to bend the European musical scale and adapt it to fit their unique purposes.

“Had Jazz-men been using words, or readily definable images, like our writers and painters, then they too would be just now emerging in their true colors," he said. "(They) would have been squelched by editors, publishers, and critics. For John Coltrane is a man who, through his saxophone, before your eyes and ears, completely annihilates every single Western influence, and longs and strains so totally, so desperately for the Asian-African nuance that soon he is actually there in his playing – as a man who calls on his Gods and Lo! They appear.” 



Surreality: The Otherwise Unexpressed


The ancestral voice of the African American collective experience is often unexpressed because so much of the blues experience of "Black People" approaches the inexplicable. However, all of it exists in various forms in the Jazz state of mind and is only expressed outside of that entity in surreality. 




The artwork of Archibald Motley, Jr. tells of secrets and dreams and discordances; a surreality peculiar to America. 








 (To be continued)






 Seeing in the Dark





"I can see in the dark," boasted Nasrudin one day in the teahouse. 


"If that is so, why do we sometimes see you carrying a light through the streets" Someone asked?

"Only to prevent other people from colliding with me."



(Story from The Pleasantries of the Incredible Mulla Nasrudin by Idries Shah)







Shhhhh. Artists at work.




I remember why I stopped going to Jazz clubs. No. It wasn’t because of cover charges or drink minimums or bad music. I stopped mainly because Jazz club audiences have a tendency to be disrespectful of the music and the artistry that goes into making it. I think it's disrespectful for people to laugh and talk so much during performances that it distracts from the performance. The music is forced into the background.



I suspect that most Jazz musicians don’t like this and, as a consequence, I believe many of them learn to ignore rude audience. That is a sad situation because a collective mentality is needed to fulfill the individual expression that is the Jazz state of mind, that is of great residual value. 




If Jazz is to survive as a form of art and live on as something more than jazzy background sound, those of us who appreciate the art form - the Jazz state of mind - must find the way to upgrading the quality of its audience.



So Shhhhh. Please.





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This two-volume set, including Over the Line: The Art and Life of Jacob Lawrence and Jacob Lawrence: Paintings, Drawings, and Murals (1935-1999), A Catalogue Raisonne, is the definitive publication on the work of artist Jacob Lawrence. The result of six years of research by the Jacob Lawrence Catalogue Raisonne Project, led by Peter T. Nesbett and Michelle DuBois, the books identify, authenticate, and document over 900 paintings, drawings, and murals created by Jacob Lawrence between 1935 and 1999-over half of them discovered by the project. Over the Line includes essays by eight distinguished art historians considering the ways in which Lawrence's art speaks so powerfully to different audiences and examining for the first time the breadth and depth of his output.

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The Limbless Fox


There is the tale of a man who saw a limbless fox and wondered how it managed to be so well fed. Deciding to watch it, he found that it had positioned itself where a lion brought its kill. After eating, the lion would go away, and the fox would eat its leavings. So the man decided to allow fate to serve him in the same way.

Sitting down in a street and waiting, all that happened was that he became more and more weak and hungry, for nobody and nothing took an interest in him.

Eventually a voice spoke and said: “Why should you behave like a lamed fox? Why should you not be a lion, so that others might benefit from your leavings?”


 Jacob Lawrence - Simply Surreal


Jacob Lawrence said: “When the subject is strong, simplicity is the only way to treat it.” Indeed. What is essentially surreal need not be complicated, See Jacob Lawrence artwork. Watch the videos JOHN BROWN.   






(Story from LEARNING HOW TO LEARN by Idries Shah)




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Confusion or Not

We are the essence of a dual consciousness. One consciousness is an awareness of that which is outside ourselves, what is physical, the world around us and the outer spaces. The other is an awareness of that which is within us, what is spiritual, the soul, the mind and other such things. The condition of our dual consciousness is the state of our essential presence. It is that part of the mysterious entity of life that justifies life, establishes a balance that each individual must maintain. When our dual consciousness is balanced, we feel at ease. We have a sense of certainty and confidence. When it is not balanced, we feel uneasy, uncertain and confused.





All I Needed Was Time

A Mulla Nasrudin Teaching Story from The Exploits of the Incomparable Mulla Naasrudin by Idries Shah



The Mulla bought a donkey. Someone told him that he would have to give it a certain amount of food every day. This he considered to be too much. He would experiment, he decided, to get it used to less food. Each day, therefore, he reduced its rations.

Eventually, when the donkey was reduced to almost no food at all, it fell over and died.

“Pity,” said the Mulla. “If I had had a little more time before it died I could have got it accustomed to living on nothing at all.”





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Watch The Blues & The Blackness on page 3





The Free Black Mind



Why the free “Black” mind? People of African descent, particularly those in America - people often called "Black People" are the last large group of people to be enslaved. They were enslaved not by chains alone, but also by ideas designed to linger in the mind until they reconciled them in order to free themselves. 

(to be continued)



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 The Sample

A Mulla Nasrudin Teaching Story from The Exploits of the Incomparable Mulla Naasrudin by Idries Shah

Sitting one day in the teahouse. Nasrudin was impressed by the rhetoric of a traveling scholar. Questioned by one of the company on some point, the sage drew a book from his pocket and banged it on the table: ‘This is my evidence! And I wrote it myself.’

A man who could not only read but write was a rarity. And a man who had written a book! The villagers treated the pedant with profound respect.

Some days later, Mulla Nasrudin appeared at the teahouse and asked whether anyone wanted to buy a house.

‘Tell us something about it, Mulla’ the people asked him, ‘for we did not even know you had a house of your own.’

‘Actions speak louder than words!’ shouted Nasrudin.

From his pocket he took a brick, and hurled it on the table in front of him.

‘This is my evidence. Examine it for quality. And I built the house myself.






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What Is To Be

A Mulla Nasrudin Teaching Story from The Pleasntries of the Incredible Mulla Naasrudin by Idries Shah



A farmer asked Nasrudin whether his olive would bear fruit in that year.

‘They will bear,” said the Mulla.

‘How do you know?’

‘I just know, that is all.’

Later the same man saw Nasrudin trotting his donkey along a seashore, looking for driftwood.

‘There is no wood here, Mulla, I have looked,’ he called out.

Hours later the same man saw Nasrudin wending his way home, tired out, still without fuel.

‘You are a man of perception, who can tell whether an olive tree will bear or not. Why can’t you tell whether there is wood on a seashore?’

'I know what must be,” said Nasrudin, ‘but I do not know what may be.’ 




Black Surreality





The term “surrealist” was coined by Guillaume Apollinaire when it appeared in the preface to his play Les Mamelles de Tiresias (The Breasts of Tiresias), which was written in 1903 and first performed in 1917. Surrealism generally pertains to artwork, literature, and music, etc. characterized by their dreamlike and, sometimes, disorienting qualities. Surrealism is also the expression of a philosophical movement with the work as its artifact. An article on the history of surrealism describes it as a cultural movement that began in the 1920s to free the unconscious to express itself and help resolve contradictions between dreams and reality. Andre Breton, a leader of that movement, asserted that above all else, surrealism is revolutionary. The article goes on to say that Sigmund Freud's work with free association, dream analysis, and the unconscious was important to the Surrealists in developing methods that would liberate imagination.





Hughie Lee-Smith

(September 20, 1915- February 23, 1999)


Hughie Lee-Smith lived through all but a decade and a half of the Twentieth Century. The African American Registry describes his paintings as expressing “a haunting sense of loneliness and alienation” of the American scene. “Mysteriously, they convey the feeling that something good is missing-and yet somehow about to happen...His vast skies, desolate scenes, and distanced people, his blowing ribbons and colorful balloons, mix realism and fantasy in surrealistic juxtapositions that reflect the contradiction and paradoxes of American life."

"I cannot begin to project the meaning of my work,” the artist said, “for these paintings, at their best, are multi-faceted visual complexes whose many aspects are pregnant with as many disparate meanings as there are viewers…I think my paintings have to do with an invisible life; a reality on a different level."





The Omen

A Mulla Nasrudin Teaching Story from The Exploits of the Incomparible Mulla Naasrudin by Idries Shah


The King was in a bad mood. As he left the palace to go hunting he saw Nasrudin.

“It is a bad omen to see a Mulla on the way to a hunt,” he shouted to his guards. “Don’t let him stare at me – whip him out of the way.”

They did so.

As it happened, the chase was successful.

The King sent for Nasrudin.

“I am sorry, Mulla. I thought you were a bad omen. You were not, it transpires.”

You thought was a bad omen!” said Nasrudin. “You look at me and get a full game bag. I look at you, and I get a whipping. Who is a bad omen for whom?” 





Salt is not Wool

A Mulla Nasrudin Teaching Story from The Exploits of the Incomparable Mulla Naasrudin by Idries Shah



One day the Mulla was taking a donkey-load of salt to market and drove the ass through a stream. The salt was dissolved. The Mulla was angry at the loss of his load. The ass was frisky with relief.

Next time he passed that way he had a load of wool. After the animal had passed through the stream, the wool was thoroughly soaked, and very heavy. The donkey staggered under the soggy load.

‘Ha!’ shouted the Mulla, ‘you thought you would get off lightly every time you went through water, didn’t you?’ 






Hymn For The Unforgotten



Forgetting is not a matter of choice or decision. Forgetting is a matter of time. Only the passage of time can completely dissolve a memory. And since the passage of time may be one that never-ends, wanting and trying to forget something may be a futile activity.




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"You can’t make yourself love someone," she thought of him.


"You can’t make someone stop loving you," he often dreamt of her and she of him.


And so  they drifted apart dreaming of love and one another.







Burnt Foot

A Mulla Nasrudin Teaching Story from The Exploits of the Incomparable Mulla Naasrudin by Idries Shah



An illiterate came to Nasrudin, and asked him to write a letter for him.

‘I can’t,’ said the Mulla, ‘because I have burned my foot.’

‘What has that got to do with writing a letter?’

‘Since nobody can read my handwriting, I am bound to have to travel somewhere to interpret the letter. And my foot is sore; so there is no point in writing the letter, is there?’





A Piece of Cake


Think of a delicious cake.

Now you have it. But can you have your cake and eat it too?

Think of life.

Now you have it. But you must live it.





Dance with Spirit!





My name is Kenneth Moore. The Howling Monk website is dedicated to Baby Boomers and cool people of all generations. You're invited to explore A Jazz State of Mind, read and comment, peruse the artwork, watch the videos, and listen to the music, etc.





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